Superior Ice & Volcanoes

Photos with simple explanations courtesy of
Michigan Tech Geologic & Mining Engineering & Sciences and Jamie Rabold.

Superior Ice

See more videos of ice flows in the Duluth Harbor Entry by the Army Corps of Engineers

Superior - Keewenau Region Lake Ice

See more images and explanations here.

Ice bubbles - click to enlarge

Ice in cross section with bubble trains (~30 cm high). The air bubbles look like jellyfish tentacles. The white top on this slab is probably snow ice, snow that at some point flooded and refroze to become snow ice.

Ice pancakes - click to enlarge

Slush ice congregates in blobs, perhaps rotating in the current, leading to a generally rounded or oval shape. The blobs jostle against one another in the waves, compacting and pushing up the ice around the edges, forming the distinctive raised rims characteristic of pancakes.

Ice Volcanoes of Duluth & Superior's South Shore

See more images and explanations here.

Ice fountain

Karl Kakuk examines the “ice volcano” on Orange Street in Duluth. The ice structure is created by a spurting fire hydrant the city runs all winter to keep the supply line from freezing and breaking. From Lake Voice News.

Ice fountain

Observer flees as the underestimated wave approaches the ice volcano.

Ice volcano - click to enlarge

Looking across the pack ice to an arc builidng atop a rock reef. The center ice volcano is "erupting".

Ice volcano - click to enlarge

Shadows of the observes projected onto the "erupting" ice volcano. Notice "erupted" blocks of material on surface.